Call No Man Father
A Common Misunderstanding of the Priesthood
The Catholic understanding of the Priesthood, where priests are called father, is scriptural and consistent with a biblical understanding of Christianity. That view, however, is a source of confusion for some men and women of goodwill, especially for many of our Evangelical Protestant brothers and sisters. If pressed about the point even well-intentioned Catholics, lacking a clear understanding of the biblical evidence, have a hard time explaining why we call our parish priest by such a name. In fact, Jesus’ words are quite clear, as found in Matthew’s Gospel account, when he says, “Call no one on earth your father …” (Mt 23:9).
So why is it that the Catholic Church has continued the practice, highlighting by name and title, that priests are appropriately called father? The reason may surprise; and a deeper exploration of Holy Scripture reveals the answer to make one thing clear: It’s scriptural and is deeply rooted in biblical religion.
The ancient Catholic custom of calling priests "father" can be traced all the way back to the Apostles. Saint Paul's own teaching on this issue includes an encouragement that Christians would imitate both his good personal example but also his example of referring to himself as their "father." Patrick Madrid, A Year With the Bible: Scriptural Wisdom for Daily Living
I do not write this to make you ashamed, but to admonish you as my beloved children. For though you have countless guides in Christ, you do not have many fathers. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel. I urge you, then, be imitators of me.”
St. Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians 4:14-16
The Catholic Church has always recognized her priests as spiritual fathers, just as the early Christians recognized St. Paul and the Apostles as their spiritual fathers. Through their ordination into the Priesthood, receiving the Sacrament of Holy Orders, priests (derived from the Greek word presbyteros, or presbyter) are recognized as having the authority given to them by our Heavenly Father (see https://www.catholic.com/qa/where-in-the-new-testament-are-priests-mentioned). When we read in Matthew 23:9, therefore, “Call no one on earth your father,” Catholics understand the verse means not to honor a man like (i.e. in the same way) you honor God.
You are witnesses, and God also, how holy and righteous and blameless was our behavior to you believers; for you know how, like a father with his children, we exhorted each one of you and encouraged you and charged you to lead a life worthy of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory.”
St. Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians 2:10-12
Unlike a well-intentioned but non-biblically supported view, the Catholic view is an appropriate and well-balanced one, in that we understand Jesus didn’t instruct in the literal (or strictest sense of the meaning) that one couldn’t call your dad, or a priest, “father”. As St. Paul wrote himself, “I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel” (1 Cor 4:15), emphasis added. Other references to father or fatherhood would include: Acts 7:2-5; Rom 4:16, 9:10; 1 Tim 1:2; Tit 1:4; Phlm 1:10.
In other words, Jesus’ statement, “call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven” (Mt 23:9: RSV) utilized the common Hebrew method of exaggeration or hyperbole (see Mt 19:24; 23:24; Lk 6:42; 14:26) to teach that God the Father is the ultimate source of all authority. Interpreting this absolutely literally would prohibit all uses of the word father whatsoever; even biological fathers. But Jesus Himself uses the term father many times (Mt 15:4-6; 19:5; 29; 21:31; Lk 16:24, 27, 30; Jn 8:56, etc.) ... Thus, the objection to calling Catholic priests fathers must be discarded. A related issue with some critics of Catholicism, is the address, “holy father” as applied to popes (it is claimed that only God could be called that). All that remains, then, is to find “holy men” referred to in the Bible. The writer of Hebrews calls the recipients of his epistle “holy brethren” (Revised Standard Version - RSV). Peter refers to a “holy priesthood” (1 Pt 2:5: RSV and King James Version) and “holy women” such as Sarah (1 Pt 3:5) ... John the Baptist is referred to as a “righteous and holy man” (Mk 6:20). Jesus refers to a “righteous man” in Matthew 10:41. Therefore, men can be called “holy” in Scripture, and by extension, since “father” as an address for priests is perfectly biblical as well, the two could be put together for “holy father.” Dave Armstrong, Bible Proofs for Catholic Truths
For my fellow Catholics: We must remember, every priest requires our respect; every priest, in spite of his weaknesses or sins.”
Therefore, we should pray for our priests and their priesthood – this spiritual fatherhood – because we rightfully understand Catholic priests have an important and God-given eternal role to play; and because priests aren’t perfect. This shouldn’t shock or scandalize. Rather, we should recognize, by the virtue of the sacraments they administer, priests help to perfect in each of us – and in themselves – the holiness we are each called to by our baptism as members of the Body of Christ. Through the special authority granted to them by Christ himself when he established the Priesthood (to be covered in another blog post), Catholic priests administer the sacraments and, thereby, strengthen the Christian faithful for their journey.
When a man fails in priesthood, we should pray for him, confront him privately with our concerns, confront him with other witnesses; and, if all other attempts fail, we should take our case to the bishop, all the while honoring the man, his priesthood, and his fatherhood. This is what children do for their fathers (see Gen 9:22-27). Dr. Scott Hahn, Signs of Life: 40 Catholic Customs and their Biblical Roots
... Paul was a father not because he was married and reared a family; he did not. He was a father because he was a priest: “a minister ... in the priestly service of the gospel” (Rom 15:16). St. Augustine looked the same way upon the episcopal office he had inherited from the apostles: “The apostles were sent as fathers; to replace those apostles, sons were born to you who were constituted bishops ... The Church calls them fathers, she who gave birth to them, who placed them in the sees of their fathers ... Such is the Catholic Church. She has given birth to sons who, through all the earth, continue the work of her first Fathers.” That is the true biblical teaching. Our priests are so much more than managers or functionaries. They are fathers. The sacramental priesthood is not so much a ceremonial function as it is a family relation ... [A priest’s] fatherhood is not merely metaphorical. True fatherhood involves the communication of life. As a natural father, I have communicated biological human life - but, in the sacraments of baptism and Eucharist, a priest communicates divine life and the divine humanity of Jesus Christ. see Hahn
As St. Paul and his fellow spiritual fathers did in the early first century, Catholic priests today hold position within the Church – a special place of ordination. Just as the bishops and presbyters did in the early days of the Church, our priests today minister to the Church throughout the world through their preaching and offering the sacraments.
As we have in previous blog posts, in future posts we will explore the heroes of the Priesthood and the many contributions these men have made throughout history in the sciences, art, literature and theology, to name a few. For other references please visit Word on Fire (www.wordonfire.org) and search Heroic Priesthood.
May the Catholic Church continue to raise holy men to the Priesthood to minister to God’s people throughout the world.
Peace be with you!
Disciple of Christ | Son of the Church
Saint Joseph, patron of fathers, patron of the universal church, pray for us.
Be not afraid! And may the peace of Christ be with you and your loved ones today and always. Holy Family pray for us. Amen.